This came to a head over the hegemony of the Iberian colony of Seguntum (an Iberian coastal city with diplomatic ties to Rome), sparking what became known as the Second Punic War (218—201 BC). Enter the young idol of the Carthaginian military, Hannibal, who is arguably one of the greatest soldiers the world has ever seen.
But, by this time, a strong Roman commander, Scipio Africanus (given the honorific because of his conquests in North Africa) had risen. The Romans—the poster children for engineering—used advanced technology and superior infrastructure to enable Scipio and his armies to ultimately defeat the Carthaginians in 201 BC. The silver mines of Spain provided up to 300 Roman pounds of silver a day that Hannibal used toward payment of the punishing fines levied by Rome as war reparations. Carthage lost its independence and became a Roman client state. The third Punic war (149-146 BC) lead to the ultimate collapse of Carthage, and by 146 BC, Rome was salting the fertile earth and proclaiming a curse over the land.